Brain Tumors

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Expand Collapse Brain Tumors  - General Description Primary brain tumors are cancers that begin in the brain, unlike cancerous tumors that begin elsewhere (lung, breast, or kidney, for example) and eventually spread to the brain. Each year doctors find a primary brain tumor in about 35,000 people in the United States. About two thirds of primary brain tumors are malignant (cancerous cells that are likely to grow rapidly and spread to other parts of the brain) and other primary brain tumors are benign (non-cancerous cells). However, some benign brain tumors can cause serious health problems and can also become malignant. About 135,000 Americans are alive today after being diagnosed with a malignant tumor in the brain or other parts of the central nervous system.

Different types of cancerous tumors affect the brain and spinal cord and can be classified according to the type of cell in which they begin. About 70% of malignant primary brain tumors diagnosed in U.S. adults are gliomas, which originate in support cells surrounding the neurons called glial cells. Gliomas can begin from different types of glial cells, including the star-shaped astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and ependymal cells. Among the astrocytic tumors are glioblastoma, which is more common in adults, and brain stem glioma, which is rarely found in adults. Bevacizumab (Avastin) is a targeted therapy that has been approved by the FDA for treating glioblastoma when other treatments haven't been effective. In addition, brain tumors can originate in the pineal gland and the pituitary gland, which are tiny glands in the center of the brain.

Despite significant improvements in the treatment of brain tumors, novel therapies and treatment strategies are needed.

Source: National Cancer Institute, 2012
Brain tumors account for 85-90% of all primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors. Available registry data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database for 2007 indicate that the combined incidence of primary invasive CNS tumors in the United States is 6.36 per 100,000 persons per year, with an estimated mortality of 4.22 per 100,000 persons per year. Worldwide, approximately 238,000 new cases of brain and other CNS tumors were diagnosed in the year 2008, with an estimated 175,000 deaths.

Few definitive observations on environmental or occupational causes of primary CNS tumors have been made. Exposure to high-dose radiation and vinyl chloride may predispose to the development of glioma. Epstein-Barr virus infection has been implicated in the etiology of primary CNS lymphoma. Transplant recipients and patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome have substantially increased risks for primary CNS lymphoma. (Refer to the PDQ summary on Primary CNS Lymphoma Treatment for more information.)

The glial cell tumors, ependymoma, astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma and glioblastoma account for approximately 31% of all intracranial tumors and 80% of malignant tumors. Meningiomas and other mesenchymal tumors account for approximately 27% of primary brain tumors.

Other less-common primary brain tumors include the following, in decreasing order of frequency:
- Pituitary tumors
- Schwannomas
- CNS lymphomas
- Embryonal, including Medulloblastomas
- Craniopharyngiomas
- Germ Cell Tumors

Schwannomas, meningiomas and ependymomas account for up to 79% of primary spinal tumors. Other less common primary spinal tumors include sarcomas, astrocytomas, vascular tumors and chordomas, in decreasing order of frequency.

Familial tumor syndromes (and respective chromosomal abnormalities that are associated with CNS neoplasms) include neurofibromatosis type I (17q11), neurofibromatosis type II (22q12), von Hippel-Lindau disease (3p25-26), tuberous sclerosis complex (9q34, 16p13), Li-Fraumeni syndrome (17p13), Turcot syndrome type 1 (3p21, 7p22), Turcot syndrome type 2 (5q21), nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (9q22.3) and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (11q13).

Source: National Cancer Institute, 2012
Primary brain tumors are cancers that begin in the brain, unlike cancerous tumors that begin elsewhere (lung, breast, or kidney, for example) and eventually spread to the brain. Each year doctors find a primary brain tumor in about 35,000 people in the United States. About two thirds of primary brain tumors are malignant (cancerous cells that are likely to grow rapidly and spread to other parts of the brain) and other primary brain tumors are benign (non-cancerous cells). However, some benign brain tumors can cause serious health problems and can also become malignant. About 135,000 Americans are alive today after being diagnosed with a malignant tumor in the brain or other parts of the central nervous system.

Different types of cancerous tumors affect the brain and spinal cord and can be classified according to the type of cell in which they begin. About 70% of malignant primary brain tumors diagnosed in U.S. adults are gliomas, which originate in support cells surrounding the neurons called glial cells. Gliomas can begin from different types of glial cells, including the star-shaped astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and ependymal cells. Among the astrocytic tumors are glioblastoma, which is more common in adults, and brain stem glioma, which is rarely found in adults. Bevacizumab (Avastin) is a targeted therapy that has been approved by the FDA for treating glioblastoma when other treatments haven't been effective. In addition, brain tumors can originate in the pineal gland and the pituitary gland, which are tiny glands in the center of the brain.

Despite significant improvements in the treatment of brain tumors, novel therapies and treatment strategies are needed.

Source: National Cancer Institute, 2012
Brain tumors account for 85-90% of all primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors. Available registry data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database for 2007 indicate that the combined incidence of primary invasive CNS tumors in the United States is 6.36 per 100,000 persons per year, with an estimated mortality of 4.22 per 100,000 persons per year. Worldwide, approximately 238,000 new cases of brain and other CNS tumors were diagnosed in the year 2008, with an estimated 175,000 deaths.

Few definitive observations on environmental or occupational causes of primary CNS tumors have been made. Exposure to high-dose radiation and vinyl chloride may predispose to the development of glioma. Epstein-Barr virus infection has been implicated in the etiology of primary CNS lymphoma. Transplant recipients and patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome have substantially increased risks for primary CNS lymphoma. (Refer to the PDQ summary on Primary CNS Lymphoma Treatment for more information.)

The glial cell tumors, ependymoma, astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma and glioblastoma account for approximately 31% of all intracranial tumors and 80% of malignant tumors. Meningiomas and other mesenchymal tumors account for approximately 27% of primary brain tumors.

Other less-common primary brain tumors include the following, in decreasing order of frequency:
- Pituitary tumors
- Schwannomas
- CNS lymphomas
- Embryonal, including Medulloblastomas
- Craniopharyngiomas
- Germ Cell Tumors

Schwannomas, meningiomas and ependymomas account for up to 79% of primary spinal tumors. Other less common primary spinal tumors include sarcomas, astrocytomas, vascular tumors and chordomas, in decreasing order of frequency.

Familial tumor syndromes (and respective chromosomal abnormalities that are associated with CNS neoplasms) include neurofibromatosis type I (17q11), neurofibromatosis type II (22q12), von Hippel-Lindau disease (3p25-26), tuberous sclerosis complex (9q34, 16p13), Li-Fraumeni syndrome (17p13), Turcot syndrome type 1 (3p21, 7p22), Turcot syndrome type 2 (5q21), nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (9q22.3) and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (11q13).

Source: National Cancer Institute, 2012
Expand Collapse No gene selected  - General Description
Cancer research and treatments are constantly changing. Knowing the gene associated with your cancer can help doctors determine the most appropriate direction of care for you. To learn how you can find out more about genetic testing please visit http://www.massgeneral.org/cancer/news/faq.aspx or contact the Cancer Center.
Expand Collapse No mutation selected
The mutation of a gene provides clinicians with a very detailed look at your cancer. Knowing this information could change the course of your care. To learn how you can find out more about genetic testing please visit http://www.massgeneral.org/cancer/news/faq.aspx or contact the Cancer Center.

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Your Matched Clinical Trials

Trial Matches: (D) - Disease
Trial Status: Showing all 9 results Per Page:
Protocol # Title Location Status Match
NCT02097810 A Phase 1/2a Study of Oral RXDX-101 in Adult Patients With Locally Advanced or Metastatic Cancer; Study Targeting ALK, ROS1, or TRKA/B/C A Phase 1/2a Study of Oral RXDX-101 in Adult Patients With Locally Advanced or Metastatic Cancer; Study Targeting ALK, ROS1, or TRKA/B/C MGH Open D
NCT01473901 A Phase I Dose Escalation Study of BKM120 With Radiation Therapy and Temozolomide in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma A Phase I Dose Escalation Study of BKM120 With Radiation Therapy and Temozolomide in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma MGH Open D
NCT01987830 Bevacizumab w / Temozolomide PET & Vascular MRI For GBM Bevacizumab w / Temozolomide PET & Vascular MRI For GBM MGH Open D
NCT01730950 Bevacizumab With or Without Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Recurrent Glioblastoma Bevacizumab With or Without Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Recurrent Glioblastoma MGH Open D
NCT01295944 Carboplatin and Bevacizumab for Recurrent Ependymoma Carboplatin and Bevacizumab for Recurrent Ependymoma MGH Open D
NCT01112527 PF-00299804 in Adult Patients With Relapsed/Recurrent Glioblastoma PF-00299804 in Adult Patients With Relapsed/Recurrent Glioblastoma MGH Open D
NCT01391143 Safety Study of MGA271 in Refractory Cancer Safety Study of MGA271 in Refractory Cancer MGH Open D
NCT02073994 Study of Orally Administered AG-120 in Subjects With Advanced Solid Tumors, Including Glioma, With an IDH1 Mutation Study of Orally Administered AG-120 in Subjects With Advanced Solid Tumors, Including Glioma, With an IDH1 Mutation MGH Open D
NCT01849146 WEE1 Inhibitor MK-1775, Radiation Therapy, and Temozolomide in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed or Recurrent Glioblastoma Multiforme WEE1 Inhibitor MK-1775, Radiation Therapy, and Temozolomide in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed or Recurrent Glioblastoma Multiforme MGH Open D
MGH has many open clinical trials for other cancers not shown on the Targeted Cancer Care website. They can be found on the MassGeneral.org clinical trials search page.

Additional clinical trials may be applicable to your search criteria, but they may not be available at MGH. These clinical trials can typically be found by searching the clinicaltrials.gov website.
Trial Status: Showing all 9 results Per Page:

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