Lung Cancer, MET, Gene Amplification

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Expand Collapse Lung Cancer  - General Description This year about 226,000 people in the U.S. will be told by a doctor that they have lung cancer. However, about 390,000 Americans remain alive today after having been diagnosed with this malignancy. Lung cancer includes tumors that begin in tissues lining air passages inside the lungs and bronchi. The bronchi are the 2 branches of the windpipe (trachea) that lead to the lungs. Based on how the cells look under a microscope, lung cancers are divided into 2 main types: small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). NSCLC accounts for 85% of these cases.

The main subtypes of NSCLC are squamous cell carcinoma (cancer beginning in thin, flat scaly-looking cells), adenocarcinoma (cancer beginning in cells that make mucus and other substances) and large cell carcinoma (cancer beginning in several types of large cells). The 2 main types of SCLC are small cell carcinoma (oat cell cancer) and combined small cell carcinoma.

Lung cancer (and other tumors) can spread (metastasize) from the place where it started (the primary tumor) in 3 ways. First, it can invade the normal tissue surrounding it. Second, cancer cells can enter the lymph system and travel through lymph vessels to distant parts of the body. Third, the cancer cells can get into the bloodstream and go to other places in the body. In these distant places, the cancer cells cause secondary tumors to grow. The main sites to which lung cancer spreads are the adrenal gland, liver and lungs.

To find out whether the cancer has entered the lymph system, a surgeon removes all or part of a node near the primary tumor and a pathologist looks at it through a microscope to see if cancer cells are present. Several kinds of imaging also can be performed to determine if the cancer has spread. These include MRI, bone scans and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS).

The FDA has approved several targeted therapies to treat patients with NSCLC. These include bevacizumab (Avastin), cetuximab (Erbitux), erlotinib (Tarceva), gefitnib (Iressa) and crizotinib (Xalkori). So far there are no FDA-approved targeted therapies for SCLC.

Despite significant improvements in the treatment of lung cancers, novel therapies and treatment strategies are needed.

Source: National Cancer Institute, 2012
Estimated new cases and deaths from lung cancer (non-small cell and small cell combined) in the United States in 2012:

New cases: 226,160
Deaths: 160,340

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the United States. The 5-year relative survival rate from 1995 to 2001 for patients with lung cancer was 15.7%. The 5-year relative survival rate varies markedly depending on the stage at diagnosis, from 49% to 16% to 2% for patients with local, regional and distant stage disease, respectively.

NSCLC arises from the epithelial cells of the lung, from the central bronchi to the terminal alveoli. The histological type of NSCLC correlates with the site of origin, reflecting the variation in respiratory tract epithelium from the bronchi to the alveoli. Squamous cell carcinoma usually starts near a central bronchus while adenocarcinoma usually originates in peripheral lung tissue.

Tobacco smoking is the strongest risk factor for developing lung cancer, though it should be noted that the majority of patients diagnosed with lung cancer quit smoking years prior to diagnosis or were never-smokers (up to 15% of cases).

The identification of driver oncogene mutations in lung cancer has led to the development of targeted therapy that has vastly broadened treatment options and improved outcomes for subsets of patients with metastatic disease. It is now common practice to determine the genotype of a NSCLC patient early in the course of their diagnosis, to ensure that all possible treatment options are considered.

Source: National Cancer Institute, 2012
This year about 226,000 people in the U.S. will be told by a doctor that they have lung cancer. However, about 390,000 Americans remain alive today after having been diagnosed with this malignancy. Lung cancer includes tumors that begin in tissues lining air passages inside the lungs and bronchi. The bronchi are the 2 branches of the windpipe (trachea) that lead to the lungs. Based on how the cells look under a microscope, lung cancers are divided into 2 main types: small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). NSCLC accounts for 85% of these cases.

The main subtypes of NSCLC are squamous cell carcinoma (cancer beginning in thin, flat scaly-looking cells), adenocarcinoma (cancer beginning in cells that make mucus and other substances) and large cell carcinoma (cancer beginning in several types of large cells). The 2 main types of SCLC are small cell carcinoma (oat cell cancer) and combined small cell carcinoma.

Lung cancer (and other tumors) can spread (metastasize) from the place where it started (the primary tumor) in 3 ways. First, it can invade the normal tissue surrounding it. Second, cancer cells can enter the lymph system and travel through lymph vessels to distant parts of the body. Third, the cancer cells can get into the bloodstream and go to other places in the body. In these distant places, the cancer cells cause secondary tumors to grow. The main sites to which lung cancer spreads are the adrenal gland, liver and lungs.

To find out whether the cancer has entered the lymph system, a surgeon removes all or part of a node near the primary tumor and a pathologist looks at it through a microscope to see if cancer cells are present. Several kinds of imaging also can be performed to determine if the cancer has spread. These include MRI, bone scans and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS).

The FDA has approved several targeted therapies to treat patients with NSCLC. These include bevacizumab (Avastin), cetuximab (Erbitux), erlotinib (Tarceva), gefitnib (Iressa) and crizotinib (Xalkori). So far there are no FDA-approved targeted therapies for SCLC.

Despite significant improvements in the treatment of lung cancers, novel therapies and treatment strategies are needed.

Source: National Cancer Institute, 2012
Estimated new cases and deaths from lung cancer (non-small cell and small cell combined) in the United States in 2012:

New cases: 226,160
Deaths: 160,340

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the United States. The 5-year relative survival rate from 1995 to 2001 for patients with lung cancer was 15.7%. The 5-year relative survival rate varies markedly depending on the stage at diagnosis, from 49% to 16% to 2% for patients with local, regional and distant stage disease, respectively.

NSCLC arises from the epithelial cells of the lung, from the central bronchi to the terminal alveoli. The histological type of NSCLC correlates with the site of origin, reflecting the variation in respiratory tract epithelium from the bronchi to the alveoli. Squamous cell carcinoma usually starts near a central bronchus while adenocarcinoma usually originates in peripheral lung tissue.

Tobacco smoking is the strongest risk factor for developing lung cancer, though it should be noted that the majority of patients diagnosed with lung cancer quit smoking years prior to diagnosis or were never-smokers (up to 15% of cases).

The identification of driver oncogene mutations in lung cancer has led to the development of targeted therapy that has vastly broadened treatment options and improved outcomes for subsets of patients with metastatic disease. It is now common practice to determine the genotype of a NSCLC patient early in the course of their diagnosis, to ensure that all possible treatment options are considered.

Source: National Cancer Institute, 2012
Expand Collapse MET  - General Description
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The MET gene encodes for a protein known as the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor and belongs to the family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). RTKs are the first link in a chain that sends signals from the outside of a cell to the parts inside the cell that control different cellular processes, such as cell division, cell proliferation, cell differentiation and cell migration. The HGF receptor is activated when another protein, HGF growth factor, attaches (binds) to it. The activated HGF receptor then activates other proteins inside the cell, leading to activation of a series of signaling pathways. One of these pathways (RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK) helps cells become able to perform specific tasks. Another pathway (PI3K/AKT/mTOR) helps cells survive. Signaling along these pathways is important for the development of a baby in its very early (embryonic) stage, and for the development of muscles, nerves, blood vessels and kidneys.

Defects in the MET gene are a cause of liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma), a form of kidney cancer (papillary renal cell carcinoma) and stomach (gastric) cancer.

Source: Genetics Home Reference
MET encodes for the receptor tyrosine kinase hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor. The HGF receptor is activated by HGF growth factor and signals primarily through the MAP kinase cascade (RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK), thereby driving proliferation and cell survival. In adults, MET gene amplification has been associated with hepatocellular carcinoma, papillary renal cell carcinoma and gastric cancer.

Source: Genetics Home Reference
Expand Collapse Gene Amplification  in MET
Gene amplification occurs when a region of DNA that contains a gene is duplicated, it is said to be "amplified". As a result of MET amplification, there is an increased amount of the MET protein in cells than is normally found.
Gene amplification occurs when a region of DNA that contains a gene is duplicated, it is said to be "amplified". As a result of MET amplification, there is an increased amount of the MET protein in cells than is normally found.

Genetic alterations in the MET gene have been found in lung cancer. These mutations all result in an over-active MET protein that cannot be normally regulated. In the case of MET amplification, the MET gene has been replicated so there are multiple copies of the DNA that codes for the MET protein. This amplification of DNA results in a higher level of the MET protein in tumor cells. The excess amount of the MET protein cannot be regulated normally, and continually sends growth and proliferation signals to lung tumor cells.

Testing for all genetic alterations in MET is available in the MGH genetics lab. Treatments are available at the MGH Cancer Center, and clinical trials testing new treatments are available.

Genetic alterations in the MET gene have been found in lung cancer. These mutations all result in an over-active MET protein that cannot be normally regulated. In the case of MET amplification, the MET gene has been replicated so there are multiple copies of the DNA that codes for the MET protein. This amplification of DNA results in a higher level of the MET protein in tumor cells. The excess amount of the MET protein cannot be regulated normally, and continually sends growth and proliferation signals to lung tumor cells.

Testing for all genetic alterations in MET is available in the MGH genetics lab. Treatments are available at the MGH Cancer Center, and clinical trials testing new treatments are available.

PubMed ID's
17463250, 18093943, 18836087, 19037978, 21248300, 20129249, 21716144, 21623265
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Your Matched Clinical Trials

Trial Matches: (D) - Disease, (G) - Gene, (M) - Mutation
Trial Status: Showing Results: 1-10 of 79 Per Page:
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Protocol # Title Location Status Match
NCT02099058 A Study Evaluating the Safety, Pharmacokinetics (PK), and Preliminary Efficacy of ABBV-399 in Subjects With Advanced Solid Tumors. A Study Evaluating the Safety, Pharmacokinetics (PK), and Preliminary Efficacy of ABBV-399 in Subjects With Advanced Solid Tumors. MGH Open DGM
NCT00585195 A Study Of Oral PF-02341066, A C-Met/Hepatocyte Growth Factor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor, In Patients With Advanced Cancer A Study Of Oral PF-02341066, A C-Met/Hepatocyte Growth Factor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor, In Patients With Advanced Cancer MGH Open DGM
NCT02219711 Phase 1/1b Study of MGCD516 in Patients With Advanced Cancer Phase 1/1b Study of MGCD516 in Patients With Advanced Cancer MGH Open DGM
NCT02750215 A Study of Capmatinib (INC280) in NSCLC Patients With MET Exon 14 Alterations Who Have Received Prior MET Inhibitor A Study of Capmatinib (INC280) in NSCLC Patients With MET Exon 14 Alterations Who Have Received Prior MET Inhibitor MGH Open DG
NCT02584634 Study to Evaluate Safety, Efficacy, Pharmacokinetics And Pharmacodynamics Of Avelumab In Combination With Either Crizotinib Or PF-06463922 In Patients With NSCLC. (Javelin Lung 101) Study to Evaluate Safety, Efficacy, Pharmacokinetics And Pharmacodynamics Of Avelumab In Combination With Either Crizotinib Or PF-06463922 In Patients With NSCLC. (Javelin Lung 101) MGH Open DG
NCT02637531 A Dose-Escalation Study to Evaluate the Safety, Tolerability, Pharmacokinetics, and Pharmacodynamics of IPI-549 A Dose-Escalation Study to Evaluate the Safety, Tolerability, Pharmacokinetics, and Pharmacodynamics of IPI-549 MGH Open D
NCT03192345 A First-in-human Study of the Safety, Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics and Anti-tumor Activity of SAR439459 Monotherapy and Combination of SAR439459 and REGN2810 in Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors A First-in-human Study of the Safety, Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics and Anti-tumor Activity of SAR439459 Monotherapy and Combination of SAR439459 and REGN2810 in Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors MGH Open D
NCT02897765 A Personal Cancer Vaccine (NEO-PV-01) w/ Nivolumab for Patients With Melanoma, Lung Cancer or Bladder Cancer A Personal Cancer Vaccine (NEO-PV-01) w/ Nivolumab for Patients With Melanoma, Lung Cancer or Bladder Cancer MGH Open D
NCT02715284 A Phase 1 Dose Escalation and Cohort Expansion Study of TSR-042, an Anti-PD-1 Monoclonal Antibody, in Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors A Phase 1 Dose Escalation and Cohort Expansion Study of TSR-042, an Anti-PD-1 Monoclonal Antibody, in Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors MGH Open D
NCT03134638 A Phase 1 Study of SY-1365 in Adult Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors A Phase 1 Study of SY-1365 in Adult Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors MGH Open D
Trial Status: Showing Results: 1-10 of 79 Per Page:
12345678Next »
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