Gastric/Esophageal, ERBB2 (HER2), Gene Amplification

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Expand Collapse Gastric/Esophageal  - General Description Cancers of the stomach and esophagus, can also collectively be referred to as gastroesophageal or esophagogastric cancer. Gastric cancer incidence varies throughout the world, with a higher frequency in some countries-perhaps due to different diets or other factors. Esophageal cancers are more common in men than in women. Both alcohol use and tobacco use are associated with a higher risk of developing gastric or esophageal cancer. According to the National Cancer Institute (NCI) data, 16,940 men and 15,690 women were projected to be diagnosed with gastric cancer in the United States in 2017.

Most cancers involving the esophagus or stomach are either squamous cell cancer (SCC) or adenocarcinoma. Gastric and esophageal cancers tend to develop slowly over many years in the inner mucosal layer of the stomach or esophagus. These early changes rarely cause symptoms, and therefore frequently go undetected. As esophageal and gastric cancers become more advanced, symptoms become more apparent. Once symptoms bring a patient to a doctor for medical attention, the diagnosis can be made. Thorough diagnostics are available at the MGH, initially involving an endoscopic biopsy, which is used to definitively diagnose the cancer by experienced Pathologists. Subsequent to a confirmed diagnosis, it is important to stage the cancer which includes in-depth pathology analysis, as well as a radiographic imaging procedure such as CT or PET scan. Often lymph nodes near the cancer are analysed to insure the cancer has not spread.

There has been a growing interest in the molecular features of esophageal and gastric cancers, as genetic alterations in these cancers have been identified in patients. Some genes that have been found to be involved in these two cancer types are mutations or amplification of the genes that encode HER2, MET or EGFR. Other genetic alterations have also been identified. Testing for these genetic alterations is performed in the genetics lab of the MGH, enabling physicians to utilize targeted therapies tailored for individual tumors. Treatment options for esophageal and gastric cancers are available at the MGH Cancer Center, as well as Clinical Trials testing new treatments for patients with this diagnosis.

Source: National Cancer Institute, 2018
Cancers of the stomach and esophagus, can also collectively be referred to as gastroesophageal or esophagogastric cancer. Gastric cancer incidence varies throughout the world, with a higher frequency in some countries-perhaps due to different diets or other factors. Esophageal cancers are more common in men than in women. Both alcohol use and tobacco use are associated with a higher risk of developing gastric or esophageal cancer. According to the National Cancer Institute (NCI) data, 16,940 men and 15,690 women were projected to be diagnosed with gastric cancer in the United States in 2017.

Most cancers involving the esophagus or stomach are either squamous cell cancer (SCC) or adenocarcinoma. Gastric and esophageal cancers tend to develop slowly over many years in the inner mucosal layer of the stomach or esophagus. These early changes rarely cause symptoms, and therefore frequently go undetected. As esophageal and gastric cancers become more advanced, symptoms become more apparent. Once symptoms bring a patient to a doctor for medical attention, the diagnosis can be made. Thorough diagnostics are available at the MGH, initially involving an endoscopic biopsy, which is used to definitively diagnose the cancer by experienced Pathologists. Subsequent to a confirmed diagnosis, it is important to stage the cancer which includes in-depth pathology analysis, as well as a radiographic imaging procedure such as CT or PET scan. Often lymph nodes near the cancer are analysed to insure the cancer has not spread.

There has been a growing interest in the molecular features of esophageal and gastric cancers, as genetic alterations in these cancers have been identified in patients. Some genes that have been found to be involved in these two cancer types are mutations or amplification of the genes that encode HER2, MET or EGFR. Other genetic alterations have also been identified. Testing for these genetic alterations is performed in the genetics lab of the MGH, enabling physicians to utilize targeted therapies tailored for individual tumors. Treatment options for esophageal and gastric cancers are available at the MGH Cancer Center, as well as Clinical Trials testing new treatments for patients with this diagnosis.

Source: National Cancer Institute, 2018
Cancers of the stomach and esophagus, can also collectively be referred to as gastroesophageal or esophagogastric cancer. Gastric cancer incidence varies throughout the world, with a higher frequency in some countries-perhaps due to different diets or other factors. Esophageal cancers are more common in men than in women. Both alcohol use and tobacco use are associated with a higher risk of developing gastric or esophageal cancer. According to the National Cancer Institute (NCI) data, 16,940 men and 15,690 women were projected to be diagnosed with gastric cancer in the United States in 2017.

Most cancers involving the esophagus or stomach are either squamous cell cancer (SCC) or adenocarcinoma. Gastric and esophageal cancers tend to develop slowly over many years in the inner mucosal layer of the stomach or esophagus. These early changes rarely cause symptoms, and therefore frequently go undetected. As esophageal and gastric cancers become more advanced, symptoms become more apparent. Once symptoms bring a patient to a doctor for medical attention, the diagnosis can be made. Thorough diagnostics are available at the MGH, initially involving an endoscopic biopsy, which is used to definitively diagnose the cancer by experienced Pathologists. Subsequent to a confirmed diagnosis, it is important to stage the cancer which includes in-depth pathology analysis, as well as a radiographic imaging procedure such as CT or PET scan. Often lymph nodes near the cancer are analysed to insure the cancer has not spread.

There has been a growing interest in the molecular features of esophageal and gastric cancers, as genetic alterations in these cancers have been identified in patients. Some genes that have been found to be involved in these two cancer types are mutations or amplification of the genes that encode HER2, MET or EGFR. Other genetic alterations have also been identified. Testing for these genetic alterations is performed in the genetics lab of the MGH, enabling physicians to utilize targeted therapies tailored for individual tumors. Treatment options for esophageal and gastric cancers are available at the MGH Cancer Center, as well as Clinical Trials testing new treatments for patients with this diagnosis.

Source: National Cancer Institute, 2018
Cancers of the stomach and esophagus, can also collectively be referred to as gastroesophageal or esophagogastric cancer. Gastric cancer incidence varies throughout the world, with a higher frequency in some countries-perhaps due to different diets or other factors. Esophageal cancers are more common in men than in women. Both alcohol use and tobacco use are associated with a higher risk of developing gastric or esophageal cancer. According to the National Cancer Institute (NCI) data, 16,940 men and 15,690 women were projected to be diagnosed with gastric cancer in the United States in 2017.

Most cancers involving the esophagus or stomach are either squamous cell cancer (SCC) or adenocarcinoma. Gastric and esophageal cancers tend to develop slowly over many years in the inner mucosal layer of the stomach or esophagus. These early changes rarely cause symptoms, and therefore frequently go undetected. As esophageal and gastric cancers become more advanced, symptoms become more apparent. Once symptoms bring a patient to a doctor for medical attention, the diagnosis can be made. Thorough diagnostics are available at the MGH, initially involving an endoscopic biopsy, which is used to definitively diagnose the cancer by experienced Pathologists. Subsequent to a confirmed diagnosis, it is important to stage the cancer which includes in-depth pathology analysis, as well as a radiographic imaging procedure such as CT or PET scan. Often lymph nodes near the cancer are analysed to insure the cancer has not spread.

There has been a growing interest in the molecular features of esophageal and gastric cancers, as genetic alterations in these cancers have been identified in patients. Some genes that have been found to be involved in these two cancer types are mutations or amplification of the genes that encode HER2, MET or EGFR. Other genetic alterations have also been identified. Testing for these genetic alterations is performed in the genetics lab of the MGH, enabling physicians to utilize targeted therapies tailored for individual tumors. Treatment options for esophageal and gastric cancers are available at the MGH Cancer Center, as well as Clinical Trials testing new treatments for patients with this diagnosis.

Source: National Cancer Institute, 2018
Expand Collapse ERBB2 (HER2)  - General Description
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ERBB2, often called HER2, is a gene that provides the code for making a cell surface growth receptor called the ERBB2 (HER2). When certain growth factors (proteins that stimulate cell growth and division) bind to this receptor, they activate a signaling system inside the cell that ultimately promotes diverse functions such as growth, interaction and adhesion between cells, and ability of the cell to migrate within tissues. In some tumors, the activation of HER2 signaling is an important mechanism that drives the disease process. This can occur through HER2 gene amplification (the most common mechanism) or HER2 gene mutation in cancer cells.

Extra copies of the ERBB2 (HER2) gene (gene amplification) have been found in a number of different cancers. This causes the cancer cells to make excess HER2 (overexpression), which in turn, tells the cells to grow and divide in an uncontrolled manner. Genetic mutations (changes in the DNA sequence that codes the ERBB2 (HER2) protein have also been found in certain tumors.

Source: Genetics Home Reference
ERBB2, often called HER2, is a gene that provides the code for making a cell surface growth receptor called the ERBB2 (HER2). When certain growth factors (proteins that stimulate cell growth and division) bind to this receptor, they activate a signaling system inside the cell that ultimately promotes diverse functions such as growth, interaction and adhesion between cells, and ability of the cell to migrate within tissues. In some tumors, the activation of HER2 signaling is an important mechanism that drives the disease process. This can occur through HER2 gene amplification (the most common mechanism) or HER2 gene mutation in cancer cells.

Extra copies of the ERBB2 (HER2) gene (gene amplification) have been found in a number of different cancers. This causes the cancer cells to make excess HER2 (overexpression), which in turn, tells the cells to grow and divide in an uncontrolled manner. Genetic mutations (changes in the DNA sequence that codes the ERBB2 (HER2) protein have also been found in certain tumors.

Source: Genetics Home Reference
PubMed ID's
15864276, 9130710, 15457249, 16397024, 18772890, 16843263, 16988931, 22899400
Expand Collapse Gene Amplification  in ERBB2 (HER2)
Genetic alterations in HER2 have been found in several types of cancer. The alterations found in different tumors include gene amplification, in which multiple copies of the HER2 gene are found in cancer cells. Overexpression of HER2 has also been found in some cancers, resulting in a higher level of the ERBB2 (HER2) protein being produced in cells, and therefore a higher level of activity. Other genetic alterations include the insertion of nucleotides in one portion of the gene called exon 20. All of these changes result in ERBB2 (HER2) proteins that cannot be regulated normally by the cell, and the protein sends constant signals to the tumor cells to grow and proliferate.

Testing for gene amplification, exon 20 insertion, and all ERBB2 (HER2) mutations is performed at the Center for Integrated Diagnostics at MGH. Treatment is available at the MGH Cancer Center. In addition, clinical trials are available investigating novel HER2 inhibitors and combination drug strategies.
Genetic alterations in HER2 have been found in several types of cancer. The alterations found in different tumors include gene amplification, in which multiple copies of the HER2 gene are found in cancer cells. Overexpression of HER2 has also been found in some cancers, resulting in a higher level of the ERBB2 (HER2) protein being produced in cells, and therefore a higher level of activity. Other genetic alterations include the insertion of nucleotides in one portion of the gene called exon 20. All of these changes result in ERBB2 (HER2) proteins that cannot be regulated normally by the cell, and the protein sends constant signals to the tumor cells to grow and proliferate.

Testing for gene amplification, exon 20 insertion, and all ERBB2 (HER2) mutations is performed at the Center for Integrated Diagnostics at MGH. Treatment is available at the MGH Cancer Center. In addition, clinical trials are available investigating novel HER2 inhibitors and combination drug strategies.

Genetic alterations have been found in the ERBB2 (HER2) gene in gastric and esophageal cancer. These alterations are gene amplifications, in which multiple copies of the ERBB2 (HER2) gene have been reproduced in the DNA of the cell. Multiple copies of the gene result in more ERBB2 (HER2) protein being produced in the cell. ERBB2 (HER2) is a cell surface receptor that normally is activated when the appropriate growth signal (ligand) binds to the receptor, activating it. The presence of more ERBB2 (HER2) than is normal prevents the cell from regulating the receptor normally. The overabundance of the receptor causes activation even when no growth ligand binds to it, so the cell constantly receives signals to grow and replicate. These constant growth signals can lead to the development of cancer.

Genetic alterations have been found in the ERBB2 (HER2) gene in gastric and esophageal cancer. These alterations are gene amplifications, in which multiple copies of the ERBB2 (HER2) gene have been reproduced in the DNA of the cell. Multiple copies of the gene result in more ERBB2 (HER2) protein being produced in the cell. ERBB2 (HER2) is a cell surface receptor that normally is activated when the appropriate growth signal (ligand) binds to the receptor, activating it. The presence of more ERBB2 (HER2) than is normal prevents the cell from regulating the receptor normally. The overabundance of the receptor causes activation even when no growth ligand binds to it, so the cell constantly receives signals to grow and replicate. These constant growth signals can lead to the development of cancer.

PubMed ID's
20728210, 21421462, 15668283, 22143936, 22646280, 22751336, 20542421, 21335337, 21415234

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Your Matched Clinical Trials

Trial Matches: (D) - Disease, (G) - Gene, (M) - Mutation
Trial Status: Showing Results: 1-10 of 24 Per Page:
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Protocol # Title Location Status Match
NCT02689284 Combination Margetuximab and Pembrolizumab for Advanced, Metastatic HER2(+) Gastric or Gastroesophageal Junction Cancer Combination Margetuximab and Pembrolizumab for Advanced, Metastatic HER2(+) Gastric or Gastroesophageal Junction Cancer MGH Open DGM
NCT01953926 Neratinib HER Mutation Basket Study (SUMMIT) Neratinib HER Mutation Basket Study (SUMMIT) MGH Open DGM
NCT02715531 A Study of the Safety and Efficacy of Atezolizumab Administered in Combination With Bevacizumab and/or Other Treatments in Participants With Solid Tumors A Study of the Safety and Efficacy of Atezolizumab Administered in Combination With Bevacizumab and/or Other Treatments in Participants With Solid Tumors MGH Open DG
NCT02500199 Phase I Study of Pyrotinib in Patients With HER2-positive Solid Tumors Phase I Study of Pyrotinib in Patients With HER2-positive Solid Tumors MGH Open DG
NCT02952729 Study of Antibody Drug Conjugate in Patients With Advanced Breast Cancer Expressing HER2 Study of Antibody Drug Conjugate in Patients With Advanced Breast Cancer Expressing HER2 MGH Open DG
NCT02099058 A Study Evaluating the Safety, Pharmacokinetics (PK), and Preliminary Efficacy of ABBV-399 in Subjects With Advanced Solid Tumors. A Study Evaluating the Safety, Pharmacokinetics (PK), and Preliminary Efficacy of ABBV-399 in Subjects With Advanced Solid Tumors. MGH Open D
NCT02908451 A Study of AbGn-107 in Patients With Gastric, Colorectal, or Pancreatic Cancer A Study of AbGn-107 in Patients With Gastric, Colorectal, or Pancreatic Cancer MGH Open D
NCT03013218 A Study of ALX148 in Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors and Lymphoma A Study of ALX148 in Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors and Lymphoma MGH Open D
NCT02880371 A Study of ARRY-382 in Combination With Pembrolizumab for the Treatment of Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors A Study of ARRY-382 in Combination With Pembrolizumab for the Treatment of Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors MGH Open D
NCT01325441 A Study of BBI608 Administered With Paclitaxel in Adult Patients With Advanced Malignancies A Study of BBI608 Administered With Paclitaxel in Adult Patients With Advanced Malignancies MGH Open D
Trial Status: Showing Results: 1-10 of 24 Per Page:
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