Gastric/Esophageal, ERBB2 (HER2)

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Expand Collapse Gastric/Esophageal  - General Description Cancers of the stomach and esophagus, can also collectively be referred to as gastroesophageal or esophagogastric cancer. Gastric cancer incidence varies throughout the world, with a higher frequency in some countries-perhaps due to different diets or other factors. Esophageal cancers are more common in men than in women. Both alcohol use and tobacco use are associated with a higher risk of developing gastric or esophageal cancer. According to the National Cancer Institute (NCI) data, 16,940 men and 15,690 women were projected to be diagnosed with gastric cancer in the United States in 2017.

Most cancers involving the esophagus or stomach are either squamous cell cancer (SCC) or adenocarcinoma. Gastric and esophageal cancers tend to develop slowly over many years in the inner mucosal layer of the stomach or esophagus. These early changes rarely cause symptoms, and therefore frequently go undetected. As esophageal and gastric cancers become more advanced, symptoms become more apparent. Once symptoms bring a patient to a doctor for medical attention, the diagnosis can be made. Thorough diagnostics are available at the MGH, initially involving an endoscopic biopsy, which is used to definitively diagnose the cancer by experienced Pathologists. Subsequent to a confirmed diagnosis, it is important to stage the cancer which includes in-depth pathology analysis, as well as a radiographic imaging procedure such as CT or PET scan. Often lymph nodes near the cancer are analysed to insure the cancer has not spread.

There has been a growing interest in the molecular features of esophageal and gastric cancers, as genetic alterations in these cancers have been identified in patients. Some genes that have been found to be involved in these two cancer types are mutations or amplification of the genes that encode HER2, MET or EGFR. Other genetic alterations have also been identified. Testing for these genetic alterations is performed in the genetics lab of the MGH, enabling physicians to utilize targeted therapies tailored for individual tumors. Treatment options for esophageal and gastric cancers are available at the MGH Cancer Center, as well as Clinical Trials testing new treatments for patients with this diagnosis.

Source: National Cancer Institute, 2018
Cancers of the stomach and esophagus, can also collectively be referred to as gastroesophageal or esophagogastric cancer. Gastric cancer incidence varies throughout the world, with a higher frequency in some countries-perhaps due to different diets or other factors. Esophageal cancers are more common in men than in women. Both alcohol use and tobacco use are associated with a higher risk of developing gastric or esophageal cancer. According to the National Cancer Institute (NCI) data, 16,940 men and 15,690 women were projected to be diagnosed with gastric cancer in the United States in 2017.

Most cancers involving the esophagus or stomach are either squamous cell cancer (SCC) or adenocarcinoma. Gastric and esophageal cancers tend to develop slowly over many years in the inner mucosal layer of the stomach or esophagus. These early changes rarely cause symptoms, and therefore frequently go undetected. As esophageal and gastric cancers become more advanced, symptoms become more apparent. Once symptoms bring a patient to a doctor for medical attention, the diagnosis can be made. Thorough diagnostics are available at the MGH, initially involving an endoscopic biopsy, which is used to definitively diagnose the cancer by experienced Pathologists. Subsequent to a confirmed diagnosis, it is important to stage the cancer which includes in-depth pathology analysis, as well as a radiographic imaging procedure such as CT or PET scan. Often lymph nodes near the cancer are analysed to insure the cancer has not spread.

There has been a growing interest in the molecular features of esophageal and gastric cancers, as genetic alterations in these cancers have been identified in patients. Some genes that have been found to be involved in these two cancer types are mutations or amplification of the genes that encode HER2, MET or EGFR. Other genetic alterations have also been identified. Testing for these genetic alterations is performed in the genetics lab of the MGH, enabling physicians to utilize targeted therapies tailored for individual tumors. Treatment options for esophageal and gastric cancers are available at the MGH Cancer Center, as well as Clinical Trials testing new treatments for patients with this diagnosis.

Source: National Cancer Institute, 2018
Cancers of the stomach and esophagus, can also collectively be referred to as gastroesophageal or esophagogastric cancer. Gastric cancer incidence varies throughout the world, with a higher frequency in some countries-perhaps due to different diets or other factors. Esophageal cancers are more common in men than in women. Both alcohol use and tobacco use are associated with a higher risk of developing gastric or esophageal cancer. According to the National Cancer Institute (NCI) data, 16,940 men and 15,690 women were projected to be diagnosed with gastric cancer in the United States in 2017.

Most cancers involving the esophagus or stomach are either squamous cell cancer (SCC) or adenocarcinoma. Gastric and esophageal cancers tend to develop slowly over many years in the inner mucosal layer of the stomach or esophagus. These early changes rarely cause symptoms, and therefore frequently go undetected. As esophageal and gastric cancers become more advanced, symptoms become more apparent. Once symptoms bring a patient to a doctor for medical attention, the diagnosis can be made. Thorough diagnostics are available at the MGH, initially involving an endoscopic biopsy, which is used to definitively diagnose the cancer by experienced Pathologists. Subsequent to a confirmed diagnosis, it is important to stage the cancer which includes in-depth pathology analysis, as well as a radiographic imaging procedure such as CT or PET scan. Often lymph nodes near the cancer are analysed to insure the cancer has not spread.

There has been a growing interest in the molecular features of esophageal and gastric cancers, as genetic alterations in these cancers have been identified in patients. Some genes that have been found to be involved in these two cancer types are mutations or amplification of the genes that encode HER2, MET or EGFR. Other genetic alterations have also been identified. Testing for these genetic alterations is performed in the genetics lab of the MGH, enabling physicians to utilize targeted therapies tailored for individual tumors. Treatment options for esophageal and gastric cancers are available at the MGH Cancer Center, as well as Clinical Trials testing new treatments for patients with this diagnosis.

Source: National Cancer Institute, 2018
Cancers of the stomach and esophagus, can also collectively be referred to as gastroesophageal or esophagogastric cancer. Gastric cancer incidence varies throughout the world, with a higher frequency in some countries-perhaps due to different diets or other factors. Esophageal cancers are more common in men than in women. Both alcohol use and tobacco use are associated with a higher risk of developing gastric or esophageal cancer. According to the National Cancer Institute (NCI) data, 16,940 men and 15,690 women were projected to be diagnosed with gastric cancer in the United States in 2017.

Most cancers involving the esophagus or stomach are either squamous cell cancer (SCC) or adenocarcinoma. Gastric and esophageal cancers tend to develop slowly over many years in the inner mucosal layer of the stomach or esophagus. These early changes rarely cause symptoms, and therefore frequently go undetected. As esophageal and gastric cancers become more advanced, symptoms become more apparent. Once symptoms bring a patient to a doctor for medical attention, the diagnosis can be made. Thorough diagnostics are available at the MGH, initially involving an endoscopic biopsy, which is used to definitively diagnose the cancer by experienced Pathologists. Subsequent to a confirmed diagnosis, it is important to stage the cancer which includes in-depth pathology analysis, as well as a radiographic imaging procedure such as CT or PET scan. Often lymph nodes near the cancer are analysed to insure the cancer has not spread.

There has been a growing interest in the molecular features of esophageal and gastric cancers, as genetic alterations in these cancers have been identified in patients. Some genes that have been found to be involved in these two cancer types are mutations or amplification of the genes that encode HER2, MET or EGFR. Other genetic alterations have also been identified. Testing for these genetic alterations is performed in the genetics lab of the MGH, enabling physicians to utilize targeted therapies tailored for individual tumors. Treatment options for esophageal and gastric cancers are available at the MGH Cancer Center, as well as Clinical Trials testing new treatments for patients with this diagnosis.

Source: National Cancer Institute, 2018
Expand Collapse ERBB2 (HER2)  - General Description
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ERBB2, often called HER2, is a gene that provides the code for making a cell surface growth receptor called the ERBB2 (HER2). When certain growth factors (proteins that stimulate cell growth and division) bind to this receptor, they activate a signaling system inside the cell that ultimately promotes diverse functions such as growth, interaction and adhesion between cells, and ability of the cell to migrate within tissues. In some tumors, the activation of HER2 signaling is an important mechanism that drives the disease process. This can occur through HER2 gene amplification (the most common mechanism) or HER2 gene mutation in cancer cells.

Extra copies of the ERBB2 (HER2) gene (gene amplification) have been found in a number of different cancers. This causes the cancer cells to make excess HER2 (overexpression), which in turn, tells the cells to grow and divide in an uncontrolled manner. Genetic mutations (changes in the DNA sequence that codes the ERBB2 (HER2) protein have also been found in certain tumors.

Source: Genetics Home Reference
ERBB2, often called HER2, is a gene that provides the code for making a cell surface growth receptor called the ERBB2 (HER2). When certain growth factors (proteins that stimulate cell growth and division) bind to this receptor, they activate a signaling system inside the cell that ultimately promotes diverse functions such as growth, interaction and adhesion between cells, and ability of the cell to migrate within tissues. In some tumors, the activation of HER2 signaling is an important mechanism that drives the disease process. This can occur through HER2 gene amplification (the most common mechanism) or HER2 gene mutation in cancer cells.

Extra copies of the ERBB2 (HER2) gene (gene amplification) have been found in a number of different cancers. This causes the cancer cells to make excess HER2 (overexpression), which in turn, tells the cells to grow and divide in an uncontrolled manner. Genetic mutations (changes in the DNA sequence that codes the ERBB2 (HER2) protein have also been found in certain tumors.

Source: Genetics Home Reference
PubMed ID's
15864276, 9130710, 15457249, 16397024, 18772890, 16843263, 16988931, 22899400
Expand Collapse ERBB2 (HER2)  in Gastric/Esophageal
Genetic alterations in the ERBB2 (HER2) gene have been identified in gastric and esophageal cancers. The alteration involves multiple copies (amplification) of the gene encoding this cell surface receptor to be present, and this results in the production of much more of the receptor in cells than is normally present. The overproduction (overexpression) of the ERRB2 (HER2) receptor creates a situation where it is constantly activated, sending constant growth and proliferation signals to the cell. Normally, the receptor is only activated when a growth signal protein (ligand) binds to the external portion of the receptor. In gene amplification, the abnormally high level of the receptor results in constant activation, and can contribute to the development of cancer.

Testing for ERBB2 (HER2) amplification/overexpression can be done in the genetics lab at the MGH Cancer Center. Treatments are available at MGH, as well as Clinical Trials that test new drugs to treat ERBB2 (HER2) amplification in tumors.

Genetic alterations in the ERBB2 (HER2) gene have been identified in gastric and esophageal cancers. The alteration involves multiple copies (amplification) of the gene encoding this cell surface receptor to be present, and this results in the production of much more of the receptor in cells than is normally present. The overproduction (overexpression) of the ERRB2 (HER2) receptor creates a situation where it is constantly activated, sending constant growth and proliferation signals to the cell. Normally, the receptor is only activated when a growth signal protein (ligand) binds to the external portion of the receptor. In gene amplification, the abnormally high level of the receptor results in constant activation, and can contribute to the development of cancer.

Testing for ERBB2 (HER2) amplification/overexpression can be done in the genetics lab at the MGH Cancer Center. Treatments are available at MGH, as well as Clinical Trials that test new drugs to treat ERBB2 (HER2) amplification in tumors.

PubMed ID's
20728210, 21421462, 15668283, 22143936, 22646280, 22751336, 20542421, 21335337, 21415234
Expand Collapse No mutation selected
The mutation of a gene provides clinicians with a very detailed look at your cancer. Knowing this information could change the course of your care. To learn how you can find out more about genetic testing please visit http://www.massgeneral.org/cancer/news/faq.aspx or contact the Cancer Center.

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Your Matched Clinical Trials

Trial Matches: (D) - Disease, (G) - Gene
Trial Status: Showing Results: 1-10 of 23 Per Page:
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Protocol # Title Location Status Match
NCT02715531 A Study of the Safety and Efficacy of Atezolizumab Administered in Combination With Bevacizumab and/or Other Treatments in Participants With Solid Tumors A Study of the Safety and Efficacy of Atezolizumab Administered in Combination With Bevacizumab and/or Other Treatments in Participants With Solid Tumors MGH Open DG
NCT02689284 Combination Margetuximab and Pembrolizumab for Advanced, Metastatic HER2(+) Gastric or Gastroesophageal Junction Cancer Combination Margetuximab and Pembrolizumab for Advanced, Metastatic HER2(+) Gastric or Gastroesophageal Junction Cancer MGH Open DG
NCT01953926 Neratinib HER Mutation Basket Study (SUMMIT) Neratinib HER Mutation Basket Study (SUMMIT) MGH Open DG
NCT02500199 Phase I Study of Pyrotinib in Patients With HER2-positive Solid Tumors Phase I Study of Pyrotinib in Patients With HER2-positive Solid Tumors MGH Open DG
NCT02952729 Study of Antibody Drug Conjugate in Patients With Advanced Breast Cancer Expressing HER2 Study of Antibody Drug Conjugate in Patients With Advanced Breast Cancer Expressing HER2 MGH Open DG
NCT03043313 Tucatinib (ONT-380) and Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With HER2+ Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Tucatinib (ONT-380) and Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With HER2+ Metastatic Colorectal Cancer MGH Open DG
NCT02099058 A Phase 1/1b Study With ABBV-399, an Antibody Drug Conjugate, in Subjects With Advanced Solid Cancer Tumors A Phase 1/1b Study With ABBV-399, an Antibody Drug Conjugate, in Subjects With Advanced Solid Cancer Tumors MGH Open D
NCT02908451 A Study of AbGn-107 in Patients With Gastric, Colorectal, or Pancreatic Cancer A Study of AbGn-107 in Patients With Gastric, Colorectal, or Pancreatic Cancer MGH Open D
NCT02880371 A Study of ARRY-382 in Combination With Pembrolizumab for the Treatment of Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors A Study of ARRY-382 in Combination With Pembrolizumab for the Treatment of Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors MGH Open D
NCT02467361 A Study of BBI608 Administered in Combination With Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Adult Patients With Advanced Cancers A Study of BBI608 Administered in Combination With Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Adult Patients With Advanced Cancers MGH Open D
Trial Status: Showing Results: 1-10 of 23 Per Page:
123Next »

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